Sunday, 3 February 2019

Burning Spear

Image result for Burning Spear

Burning Spear

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigationJump to search
Burning Spear
Burning Spear Live.jpg
Burning Spear in 2013
Background information
Birth nameWinston Rodney
Born1 March 1945 (age 73)
Saint Ann's Bay, Saint Ann, Jamaica
GenresReggaedub
Years active1969–present
LabelsStudio OneIslandEMIHeartbeatSlash/Warner Bros., Burning Music
Websitewww.burningspearwebsite.com
Winston Rodney OD (born 1 March 1945), better known by the stage name Burning Spear, is a Jamaican roots reggaevocalist and musician. Burning Spear is a Rastafarian and one of the most influential and long-standing roots artists to emerge from the 1970s.[1][2]

Contents

Early life[edit]

Winston Rodney was born in Saint Ann's Bay, Saint AnnJamaica. As a young man he listened to the R&B, soul and jazz music transmitted by the US radio stations whose broadcasts reached Jamaica. Curtis Mayfield is cited by Rodney as a major US musical influence along with James Brown.[3] Rodney was deeply influenced as a young man by the views of the political activist Marcus Garvey, especially with regard to the exploration of the themes of Pan-Africanism and self-determination.[3] In 1969, Bob Marley, who was also from Saint Ann, advised Rodney to approach Coxsone Dodd's Studio One label after Rodney sought his advice during a casual conversation.[4][5][6]

Career[edit]

Burning Spear was originally Rodney's group, named after a military award given by Jomo Kenyatta, the first President of an independent Kenya,[7] and included bass singer Rupert Willington. The duo auditioned for Dodd in 1969 which led to the release of their debut single "Door Peep" (the session also included Cedric Brooks on saxophone).[4][8] They were then joined by tenor Delroy Hinds. The trio recorded several more singles for Dodd, and two albums, before they moved on to work with Jack Ruby in 1975.[4] Their first recording with Ruby, "Marcus Garvey", was intended as an exclusive track for Ruby's Ocho Rios–based Hi-Power sound system, but was released as a single, giving them an immediate hit, and was followed by "Slavery Days".[4] These recordings featured the backing band The Black Disciples, which included Earl "Chinna" SmithValentine ChinRobbie Shakespeare and Leroy Wallace.[4] The group worked with Ruby on their third album, Marcus Garvey (1975), which was immediately successful and led to a deal with Island Records to give the album a wider release.[4] Island remixed and altered the speed of some of the tracks, much to the annoyance of fans and the group,[9] leading Rodney to set up his own Burning Music[10] label for future releases where he would have full control, although further releases followed on Island including Garvey's Ghost, a dub album, and the Man in the Hills album.[4] In late 1976, Rodney split from both Ruby and group members Willington and Hinds, and from that point on used the name Burning Spear for himself alone. Dry and Heavy followed in 1977, self-produced but still on Island, and with a sizeable following by now in the United Kingdom,[9] he performed in London that year with members of Aswad acting as his backing band for a sold-out show at the Rainbow Theatre, which was recorded and released as the album Live!.[4] Aswad also provided backing on his next studio album, Social Living (1978), which also featured Sly Dunbar and Rico Rodriguez.[4] A dub version of the album, Living Dub (1979), was mixed by Sylvan Morris.[4] His profile was raised further by an appearance in the film Rockers, performing "Jah no Dead".[9]
In 1980, Rodney left Island Records and set up the Burning Music Production Company,[11][12] which he signed to EMI,[9] debuting on the label with Hail H.I.M., recorded at Marley's Tuff Gong studio and co-produced by Aston Barrett.[4] A Sylvan Morris dub version followed in the form of Living Dub Volume Two.[4] In 1982, Rodney signed with Heartbeat Records with a series of well-received albums following, including the 1985 Grammy-nominated Resistance.[4] He returned to Island in the early 1990s, releasing two albums before rejoining Heartbeat. This arrangement in which Burning Music Productions delivered completed albums of music to EMI, Island and Heartbeat Records for worldwide distribution lasted for many years. When Heartbeat ceased releasing new material, Burning Music took matters into their own hands and began to release music solely through their own imprint.[13] Albums released by Heartbeat through an agreement with Burning Music include: The World Should Know (1993), Rasta Business (1995), Appointment with His Majesty (1997) and the Grammy award winning Calling Rastafari (1999) which was the last completed album to be solely pressed by an outside label.
Burning Spear spent decades touring extensively, and several live albums have been issued including Burning Spear LiveLive in ParisLive in South AfricaLive in VermontPeace and Love LiveLive at Montreux Jazz Festival and (A)live 1997.[14] Touring the world time and time again, the band’s live sound matured and grew more sophisticated. While remaining firmly rooted in reggae, accents of free jazz, funk and psychedelic music were increasingly in evidence.[15]
His 1999 album, Calling Rastafari brought his first Grammy Award in 2000,[7] a feat which he repeated with Jah Is Real in 2009.[16]
In 2002, he and his wife, Sonia Rodney who has produced a number of his albums, restarted Burning Music Records, giving him a greater degree of artistic control.[5][17][18]Since the mid-1990s, he has been based in Queens in New York City.[19]
Burning Spear was awarded the Order of Distinction in the rank of Officer on 15 October 2007.[20]
Since establishing their own label, Winston and Sonia Rodney have released nearly forty singles, CDs, DVDs and vinyl albums on the Burning Music imprint. Many of these albums have been deluxe editions of albums previously available on other labels and often include bonus tracks and DVD footage.[21][22] In this way, Burning Music is able to assure the quality of the Burning Spear music available in the market and guarantee that music from all phases of Burning Spear's career is available for his listeners to hear.

Discography[edit]

Awards[edit]

Burning Spear has won two Grammy Awards for Best Reggae Album; one at the 42nd Grammy Awards in 2000 for Calling Rastafari, and one for 2009's Jah Is Real. He has been nominated for a total of 12 Grammy Awards.[18][23]
Nominations for Best Reggae Album:

Peter Tosh

Image result for Peter Tosh

Peter Tosh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigationJump to search

Peter Tosh

BushDoctor1978.jpg
Peter Tosh (left) on the Bush Doctor tour in 1978, with Al Anderson (guitar) and Robbie Shakespeare (bass)
Background information
Birth nameWinston Hubert McIntosh
Also known asStepping Razor
Born19 October 1944
Grange HillWestmoreland ParishJamaica
Died11 September 1987(aged 42)
Kingston, Jamaica
GenresReggaeskarocksteadyR&B
Occupation(s)Musician, singer-songwriter
InstrumentsGuitar, vocals, keyboards, melodica, percussions, drums, violin
Years active1961–1987
LabelsIntel-Diplo
Associated actsThe WailersBob MarleyBunny WailerMick JaggerAl Anderson
Peter ToshOM (born Winston Hubert McIntosh; 19 October[1] 1944 – 11 September 1987) was a Jamaican reggae musician. Along with Bob Marley and Bunny Wailer, he was one of the core members of the band the Wailers (1963–1976), after which he established himself as a successful solo artist and a promoter of Rastafari. He was murdered in 1987 during a home invasion.

Contents

Early music and with the Wailers[edit]

Tosh was born in Westmoreland, the westernmost parish of Jamaica. He was abandoned by his parents and "shuffled among relatives."[2] When McIntosh was fifteen, his aunt died and he moved to Trenchtown in Kingston, Jamaica. He first picked up a guitar by watching a man in the country play a song that captivated him. He watched the man play the same song for half a day, memorizing everything his fingers were doing. He then picked up the guitar and played the song back to the man. The man then asked McIntosh who had taught him to play; McIntosh told him that he had.[3] During the early 1960s Tosh met Robert Nesta Marley (Bob Marley) and Neville O'Reilly Livingston (Bunny Wailer) and went to vocal teacher Joe Higgs, who gave out free vocal lessons to young people, in hopes to form a new band. He then changed his name to become Peter Tosh and the trio started singing together in 1962. Higgs taught the trio to harmonize and while developing their music, they would often play on the street corners of Trenchtown.[4]
In 1964 Tosh helped organize the band the Wailing Wailers, with Junior Braithwaite, a falsetto singer, and backup singers Beverley Kelso and Cherry Smith. Initially, Tosh was the only one in the group who could play musical instruments. According to Bunny Wailer, Tosh was critical to the band because he was a self-taught guitarist and keyboardist, and thus became an inspiration for the other band members to learn to play. The Wailing Wailers had a major ska hit with their first single, "Simmer Down", and recorded several more successful singles before Braithwaite, Kelso and Smith left the band in late 1965. Marley spent much of 1966 in Delaware in the United States with his mother, Cedella (Malcolm) Marley-Booker, and for a brief time was working at a nearby Chrysler factory. He then returned to Jamaica in early 1967 with a renewed interest in music and a new spirituality. Tosh and Bunny were already Rastafarians when Marley returned from the US, and the three became very involved with the Rastafari faith. Soon afterwards, they renamed the musical group the Wailers. Tosh would explain later that they chose the name Wailers because to "wail" means to mourn or to, as he put it, "...express one's feelings vocally". He also claims that he was the beginning of the group, and that it was he who first taught Bob Marley the guitar. The latter claim may very well be true, for according to Bunny Wailer, the early Wailers learned to play instruments from Tosh.[5]
Rejecting the up-tempo dance of ska, the band slowed their music to a rocksteady pace, and infused their lyrics with political and social messages inspired by their new-found faith. The Wailers composed several songs for the American-born singer Johnny Nash before teaming with producer Lee Perry to record some of the earliest well-known reggae songs, including "Soul Rebel", "Duppy Conqueror", and "Small Axe". The collaboration had given birth to reggae music and later, bassist Aston "Family Man" Barrett and his brother, drummer Carlton Barrett would join the group in 1970. The band signed a recording contract with Chris Blackwell and Island Records company and released their debut, Catch a Fire, in 1973, following it with Burnin' the same year. The Wailers had moved from many producers after 1970 and there were instances where producers would record rehearsal sessions that Tosh did and release them in England under the name "Peter Touch".
In 1973, Tosh was driving home with his girlfriend Evonne when his car was hit by another car driving on the wrong side of the road. The accident killed Evonne and severely fractured Tosh's skull. After Island Records president Chris Blackwell refused to issue his solo album in 1974, Tosh and Bunny Wailer left the Wailers, citing the unfair treatment they received from Blackwell, to whom Tosh often referred with a derogatory play on Blackwell's surname, 'Whiteworst'.[6] Tosh had written many of the Wailers' hit songs such as "Get Up, Stand Up", "400 Years", and "No Sympathy".Tosh began recording and released his solo debut, Legalize It, in 1976 with CBS Records company, Tuff Gong and Island Records. The title track soon became popular among endorsers of marijuana legalization, reggae music lovers and Rastafari all over the world, and was a favourite at Tosh's concerts. That was his last album from the Wailers, Tuff Gong and Island Records.

Solo career[edit]

Tosh started to make his own album with Rolling Stones Records and CBS Records Equal Rights followed in 1977, featuring his recording of a song co-written with Marley, "Get Up, Stand Up," and a cover of "Stepping Razor" that would also appear on the soundtrack to the film Rockers.
Tosh organized a backing band, Word, Sound and Power, who were to accompany him on tour for the next few years, and many of whom performed on his albums of this period. In 1978 the Rolling Stones record label Rolling Stones Records contracted with Tosh, on which the album Bush Doctor was released, introducing Tosh to a larger audience. The album featured Rolling Stones frontmen Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, and the lead single – a cover version of The Temptations song "Don't Look Back" – was performed as a duet with Jagger. It made Tosh one of the best-known reggae artists.

Peter Tosh with Robbie Shakespeare, 1978
During Bob Marley's free One Love Peace Concert of 1978, Tosh lit a marijuana spliff and lectured about legalizing cannabis, lambasting attending dignitaries Michael Manley and Edward Seaga for their failure to enact such legislation. Several months later he was apprehended by police as he left Skateland dance hall in Kingston and was beaten severely while in police custody[citation needed].
Mystic Man (1979), and Wanted Dread and Alive (1981) followed, both released on Rolling Stones Records. Tosh tried to gain some mainstream success while keeping his militant views, but was only moderately successful, especially when compared to Marley's achievements. That same year, Tosh appeared in the Rolling Stones' video Waiting on a Friend.
In 1984, after the release of 1983's album Mama Africa, Tosh went into self-imposed exile, seeking the spiritual advice of traditional medicine men in Africa, and trying to free himself from recording agreements that distributed his records in South Africa.[citation needed]Tosh had been at odds for several years with his label, EMI, over a perceived lack of promotion for his music.[7]
Tosh also participated in the international opposition to South African apartheid by appearing at Anti-Apartheid concerts and by conveying his opinion in various songs like "Apartheid" (1977, re-recorded 1987), "Equal Rights" (1977), "Fight On" (1979), and "Not Gonna Give It Up" (1983). In 1987, Peter Tosh seemed to be having a career revival. He was awarded a Grammy Award for Best Reggae Performance in 1987 for No Nuclear War, his last record.[8]

Religion[edit]

Along with Bob Marley and Bunny Wailer during the late 1960s, Peter Tosh became a devotee of Rastafari.[9] One of the beliefs of the Rastas was that Haile Selassie, the Emperor of Ethiopia, was either an embodiment of God or a messenger of God, leading the three friends to be baptized by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.[10]

Unicycling[edit]

At some point after his departure from the Wailers, Tosh developed an interest in unicycles; he became a unicycle rider, being able to ride forwards and backwards and hop. He often amused his audiences by riding onto the stage on his unicycle for his shows.[11][12]

Death[edit]

On 11 September 1987, just after Tosh had returned to his home in Jamaica, a three-man gang came to his house on motorcycles and demanded money.[13][14] Tosh replied that he did not have any with him but the gang did not believe him. They stayed at his residence for several hours and tortured Tosh in an attempt to extort money from him. Over the hours, as various associates of Tosh arrived to visit him, they were also taken hostage by the gunmen. The gunmen became more and more frustrated, especially the chief thug, Dennis "Leppo" Lobban, a man whom Tosh had previously befriended and tried to help find work after a long jail sentence.[13] Tosh said he did not have any money in the house, after which Lobban and the fellow gunmen began opening fire in a reckless manner. Tosh was shot twice in the head and killed. Herbalist Wilton "Doc" Brown and disc jockey Jeff 'Free I' Dixon also died as a result of wounds sustained during the robbery. Several others in the house were wounded, including Tosh's common law wife Andrea Marlene Brown, Free I's wife Yvonne ("Joy"); Tosh's drummer Carlton "Santa" Davis, and musician Michael Robinson.[15][16]
According to Police Commissioner Herman Ricketts, Dennis "Leppo" Lobban surrendered and two other men were interrogated but not publicly named.[17] Lobban went on to plead innocent during his trial, telling the court he had been drinking with friends. The trial was held in a closed court due to the involvement of illegal firearms. Lobban was ultimately found guilty by a jury of eight women and four men and sentenced to death by hanging.[18] His sentence was commuted in 1995 and Lobban remains in jail.[19] Another suspect was acquitted due to insufficient evidence.[20] The other two gunmen were never identified by name.

Legacy[edit]

In 1993 Stepping Razor - Red X was released, a documentary film chronicling Peter Tosh's life, music and untimely death.[21] It was directed by Canadian filmmaker Nicholas Campbell, produced by Wayne Jobson and based upon a series of spoken-word recordings made by Tosh himself.[22][23] The film was released on DVD in 2002.[24]
A monument to Peter Tosh is maintained by his family near Negril, Jamaica and is open to the public. His birthday is celebrated there annually with live reggae music.[25]
In October 2012 Tosh was posthumously awarded Jamaica's fourth[26] highest honour, the Order of Merit.[27]
A square on Trafalgar Road in Kingston was renamed Peter Tosh Square. The square is home to the Peter Tosh Museum, which opened in October 2016.[28][29] Among the artifacts on display will be Tosh's M16 guitar.
In 2015, Tosh's daughter – the administrator of the Peter Tosh Estate – deemed that April 20 should be celebrated as International Peter Tosh Day, in honour of his "philosophy of responsible cannabis consumption for medicinal and spiritual health benefits".[30][31]
The annual Peter Tosh Gala Awards event was inaugurated in 2017.[32]

M16 guitar[edit]

In 1983, at the Los Angeles stop on Tosh's Mama Africa tour, a local musician named Bruno Coon went to the hotel at which Tosh was staying, claiming to have a gift for him. The gift was a custom-built guitar in the shape of an M16 rifle. Tosh accepted the gift personally.[33] The guitar was subsequently lost by the airlines when the tour went to Europe but was recovered when Tosh's public relations agent placed an article about its loss in Der Spiegel. Tosh went on to perform on stage with the guitar.[34]
In 2006, it was announced by the promoters of the Flashpoint Film Festival that the guitar would be auctioned on eBay by Tosh's common-law wife Andrea "Marlene" Brown.[35]Tosh's sons, Andrew Tosh, and Jawara McIntosh, prevented the sale, claiming ownership of the guitar.[36] In 2011, Andrew Tosh, said that the guitar was in the custody of a close friend, awaiting the opening of a museum dedicated to Peter Tosh.[37]
The Peter Tosh Museum was opened on Peter Tosh's 72nd Birthday on 19 October 2016 in Kingston, Jamaica.

Discography[edit]

Studio albums[edit]

List of albums, with selected chart positions
YearAlbum detailsPeak chart positions
USUS
R&B
1976Legalize It
199 –
1977Equal Rights
156 –
1978Bush Doctor
  • Released:
  • Label: Rolling Stones Records
  • EMI
  • Format:
123 –
1979Mystic Man
  • Released:
  • Label: Rolling Stones Records
  • EMI
  • Format:
104 –
1981Wanted Dread and Alive
9140
1983Mama Africa
  • Released:
  • Label: Rolling Stones Records
  • EMI
  • EMI America
  • Intel-Diplo
  • Format:
5949
1987No Nuclear War
  • Released:
  • Label: EMI
  • Format:
 – –
"—" denotes a recording that did not chart or was not released in that territory.

Live albums[edit]

  • Captured Live (1984)
  • Live at the One Love Peace Concert (2000)
  • Live & Dangerous: Boston 1976 (2001)
  • Live at the Jamaica World Music Festival 1982 (2002)
  • Complete Captured Live (2002)
  • Live at My Father's Place 1978 (2014)

Compilations[edit]

Listed are compilations containing material previously unreleased outside of Jamaica.
  • The Toughest (Heartbeat) (1996)
  • Honorary Citizen (1997)
  • Scrolls of the Prophet: The Best of Peter Tosh (1999)
  • Arise Black Man (1999)
  • Black Dignity (Early Works of the Stepping Razor) (2001)
  • I Am That I Am (2001)
  • The Best of Peter Tosh 1977–1987 (2003)
  • Can't Blame the Youth (2004)
  • Black Dignity (JAD) (2004)
  • Talking Revolution (2005)
  • The Ultimate Peter Tosh Experience (2009)

Appears on[edit]

Blog Index

...